org.scalatest

Assertions

trait Assertions extends AnyRef

Trait that contains ScalaTest's basic assertion methods.

You can use the assertions provided by this trait in any ScalaTest Suite, because Suite mixes in this trait. This trait is designed to be used independently of anything else in ScalaTest, though, so you can mix it into anything. (You can alternatively import the methods defined in this trait. For details, see the documentation for the Assertions companion object.

In any Scala program, you can write assertions by invoking assert and passing in a Boolean expression, such as:

val left = 2
val right = 1
assert(left == right)

If the passed expression is true, assert will return normally. If false, assert will complete abruptly with an AssertionError. This behavior is provided by the assert method defined in object Predef, whose members are implicitly imported into every Scala source file. This Assertions traits defines another assert method that hides the one in Predef. It behaves the same, except that if false is passed it throws TestFailedException instead of AssertionError. The reason it throws TestFailedException is because TestFailedException carries information about exactly which item in the stack trace represents the line of test code that failed, which can help users more quickly find an offending line of code in a failing test.

If you pass the previous Boolean expression, left == right to assert in a ScalaTest test, a failure will be reported, but without reporting the left and right values. You can alternatively encode these values in a String passed as a second argument to assert, like this:

val left = 2
val right = 1
assert(left == right, left + " did not equal " + right)

Using this form of assert, the failure report will include the left and right values, thereby helping you debug the problem. However, ScalaTest provides the === operator to make this easier. You use it like this:

val left = 2
val right = 1
assert(left === right)

Because you use === here instead of ==, the failure report will include the left and right values. For example, the detail message in the thrown TestFailedException from the assert shown previously will include, "2 did not equal 1". From this message you will know that the operand on the left had the value 2, and the operand on the right had the value 1.

If you're familiar with JUnit, you would use === in a ScalaTest Suite where you'd use assertEquals in a JUnit TestCase. The === operator is made possible by an implicit conversion from Any to Equalizer. If you're curious to understand the mechanics, see the documentation for Equalizer and the convertToEqualizer method.

Expected results

Although === provides a natural, readable extension to Scala's assert mechanism, as the operands become lengthy, the code becomes less readable. In addition, the === comparison doesn't distinguish between actual and expected values. The operands are just called left and right, because if one were named expected and the other actual, it would be difficult for people to remember which was which. To help with these limitations of assertions, Suite includes a method called expect that can be used as an alternative to assert with ===. To use expect, you place the expected value in parentheses after expect, followed by curly braces containing code that should result in the expected value. For example:

val a = 5
val b = 2
expect(2) {
  a - b
}

In this case, the expected value is 2, and the code being tested is a - b. This expectation will fail, and the detail message in the TestFailedException will read, "Expected 2, but got 3."

Intercepted exceptions

Sometimes you need to test whether a method throws an expected exception under certain circumstances, such as when invalid arguments are passed to the method. You can do this in the JUnit 3 style, like this:

val s = "hi"
try {
  s.charAt(-1)
  fail()
}
catch {
  case _: IndexOutOfBoundsException => // Expected, so continue
}

If charAt throws IndexOutOfBoundsException as expected, control will transfer to the catch case, which does nothing. If, however, charAt fails to throw an exception, the next statement, fail(), will be run. The fail method always completes abruptly with a TestFailedException, thereby signaling a failed test.

To make this common use case easier to express and read, ScalaTest provides an intercept method. You use it like this:

val s = "hi"
intercept[IndexOutOfBoundsException] {
  s.charAt(-1)
}

This code behaves much like the previous example. If charAt throws an instance of IndexOutOfBoundsException, intercept will return that exception. But if charAt completes normally, or throws a different exception, intercept will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException. intercept returns the caught exception so that you can inspect it further if you wish, for example, to ensure that data contained inside the exception has the expected values.

Getting a clue

If you want more information that is provided by default by the methods if this trait, you can supply a "clue" string in one of several ways. The extra information (or "clues") you provide will be included in the detail message of the thrown exception. Both assert and expect provide a way for a clue to be included directly, intercept does not. Here's an example of clues provided directly in assert:

assert(1 + 1 === 3, "this is a clue")

and in expect:

expect(3, "this is a clue") { 1 + 1 }

The exceptions thrown by the previous two statements will include the clue string, "this is a clue", in the exception's detail message. To get the same clue in the detail message of an exception thrown by a failed intercept call requires using withClue:

withClue("this is a clue") {
  intercept[IndexOutOfBoundsException] {
    "hi".charAt(-1)
  }
}

The withClue method will only prepend the clue string to the detail message of exception types that mix in the ModifiableMessage trait. See the documentation for ModifiableMessage for more information.

Trait that contains ScalaTest's basic assertion methods.

You can use the assertions provided by this trait in any ScalaTest Suite, because Suite mixes in this trait. This trait is designed to be used independently of anything else in ScalaTest, though, so you can mix it into anything. (You can alternatively import the methods defined in this trait. For details, see the documentation for the Assertions companion object.

In any Scala program, you can write assertions by invoking assert and passing in a Boolean expression, such as:

val left = 2
val right = 1
assert(left == right)

If the passed expression is true, assert will return normally. If false, assert will complete abruptly with an AssertionError. This behavior is provided by the assert method defined in object Predef, whose members are implicitly imported into every Scala source file. This Assertions traits defines another assert method that hides the one in Predef. It behaves the same, except that if false is passed it throws TestFailedException instead of AssertionError. The reason it throws TestFailedException is because TestFailedException carries information about exactly which item in the stack trace represents the line of test code that failed, which can help users more quickly find an offending line of code in a failing test.

If you pass the previous Boolean expression, left == right to assert in a ScalaTest test, a failure will be reported, but without reporting the left and right values. You can alternatively encode these values in a String passed as a second argument to assert, like this:

val left = 2
val right = 1
assert(left == right, left + " did not equal " + right)

Using this form of assert, the failure report will include the left and right values, thereby helping you debug the problem. However, ScalaTest provides the === operator to make this easier. You use it like this:

val left = 2
val right = 1
assert(left === right)

Because you use === here instead of ==, the failure report will include the left and right values. For example, the detail message in the thrown TestFailedException from the assert shown previously will include, "2 did not equal 1". From this message you will know that the operand on the left had the value 2, and the operand on the right had the value 1.

If you're familiar with JUnit, you would use === in a ScalaTest Suite where you'd use assertEquals in a JUnit TestCase. The === operator is made possible by an implicit conversion from Any to Equalizer. If you're curious to understand the mechanics, see the documentation for Equalizer and the convertToEqualizer method.

Expected results

Although === provides a natural, readable extension to Scala's assert mechanism, as the operands become lengthy, the code becomes less readable. In addition, the === comparison doesn't distinguish between actual and expected values. The operands are just called left and right, because if one were named expected and the other actual, it would be difficult for people to remember which was which. To help with these limitations of assertions, Suite includes a method called expect that can be used as an alternative to assert with ===. To use expect, you place the expected value in parentheses after expect, followed by curly braces containing code that should result in the expected value. For example:

val a = 5
val b = 2
expect(2) {
  a - b
}

In this case, the expected value is 2, and the code being tested is a - b. This expectation will fail, and the detail message in the TestFailedException will read, "Expected 2, but got 3."

Intercepted exceptions

Sometimes you need to test whether a method throws an expected exception under certain circumstances, such as when invalid arguments are passed to the method. You can do this in the JUnit 3 style, like this:

val s = "hi"
try {
  s.charAt(-1)
  fail()
}
catch {
  case _: IndexOutOfBoundsException => // Expected, so continue
}

If charAt throws IndexOutOfBoundsException as expected, control will transfer to the catch case, which does nothing. If, however, charAt fails to throw an exception, the next statement, fail(), will be run. The fail method always completes abruptly with a TestFailedException, thereby signaling a failed test.

To make this common use case easier to express and read, ScalaTest provides an intercept method. You use it like this:

val s = "hi"
intercept[IndexOutOfBoundsException] {
  s.charAt(-1)
}

This code behaves much like the previous example. If charAt throws an instance of IndexOutOfBoundsException, intercept will return that exception. But if charAt completes normally, or throws a different exception, intercept will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException. intercept returns the caught exception so that you can inspect it further if you wish, for example, to ensure that data contained inside the exception has the expected values.

Getting a clue

If you want more information that is provided by default by the methods if this trait, you can supply a "clue" string in one of several ways. The extra information (or "clues") you provide will be included in the detail message of the thrown exception. Both assert and expect provide a way for a clue to be included directly, intercept does not. Here's an example of clues provided directly in assert:

assert(1 + 1 === 3, "this is a clue")

and in expect:

expect(3, "this is a clue") { 1 + 1 }

The exceptions thrown by the previous two statements will include the clue string, "this is a clue", in the exception's detail message. To get the same clue in the detail message of an exception thrown by a failed intercept call requires using withClue:

withClue("this is a clue") {
  intercept[IndexOutOfBoundsException] {
    "hi".charAt(-1)
  }
}

The withClue method will only prepend the clue string to the detail message of exception types that mix in the ModifiableMessage trait. See the documentation for ModifiableMessage for more information.

go to: companion
linear super types: AnyRef, Any
known subclasses: Suite, TestNGSuite, TestNGWrapperSuite, Matchers, ShouldMatchers, ShouldMatchers, DeprecatedMatchers, DeprecatedShouldMatchers, DeprecatedShouldMatchers, AssertionsForJUnit, ShouldMatchersForJUnit, ShouldMatchersForJUnit, JUnitWrapperSuite, JUnitSuite, JUnit3Suite, AssertionsForJUnit, FixtureSuite, FixtureWordSpec, MultipleFixtureWordSpec, FixtureSpec, MultipleFixtureSpec, FixtureFunSuite, MultipleFixtureFunSuite, FixtureFlatSpec, MultipleFixtureFlatSpec, FixtureFeatureSpec, MultipleFixtureFeatureSpec, WordSpec, NestedSuites, SuperSuite, Spec, FunSuite, FlatSpec, FeatureSpec, Assertions
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Type Members

  1. class Equalizer extends AnyRef

    Class used via an implicit conversion to enable any two objects to be compared with === in assertions in tests.

Value Members

  1. def != ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  2. def != ( arg0 : Any ) : Boolean

    o != arg0 is the same as !(o == (arg0)).

    o != arg0 is the same as !(o == (arg0)).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for dis-equality.

    returns

    false if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; true otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  3. def ## () : Int

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  4. def $asInstanceOf [T0] () : T0

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  5. def $isInstanceOf [T0] () : Boolean

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  6. def == ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    o == arg0 is the same as if (o eq null) arg0 eq null else o.equals(arg0).

    o == arg0 is the same as if (o eq null) arg0 eq null else o.equals(arg0).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for equality.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  7. def == ( arg0 : Any ) : Boolean

    o == arg0 is the same as o.equals(arg0).

    o == arg0 is the same as o.equals(arg0).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for equality.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  8. def asInstanceOf [T0] : T0

    This method is used to cast the receiver object to be of type T0.

    This method is used to cast the receiver object to be of type T0.

    Note that the success of a cast at runtime is modulo Scala's erasure semantics. Therefore the expression 1.asInstanceOf[String] will throw a ClassCastException at runtime, while the expression List(1).asInstanceOf[List[String]] will not. In the latter example, because the type argument is erased as part of compilation it is not possible to check whether the contents of the list are of the requested typed.

    returns

    the receiver object.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  9. def assert ( o : Option[String] ) : Unit

    Assert that an Option[String] is None.

    Assert that an Option[String] is None. If the condition is None, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException with the String value of the Some included in the TestFailedException's detail message.

    This form of assert is usually called in conjunction with an implicit conversion to Equalizer, using a === comparison, as in:

    assert(a === b)
    

    For more information on how this mechanism works, see the documentation for Equalizer.

    o

    the Option[String] to assert

  10. def assert ( o : Option[String] , clue : Any ) : Unit

    Assert that an Option[String] is None.

    Assert that an Option[String] is None. If the condition is None, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException with the String value of the Some, as well as the String obtained by invoking toString on the specified message, included in the TestFailedException's detail message.

    This form of assert is usually called in conjunction with an implicit conversion to Equalizer, using a === comparison, as in:

    assert(a === b, "extra info reported if assertion fails")
    

    For more information on how this mechanism works, see the documentation for Equalizer.

    o

    the Option[String] to assert

    clue

    An objects whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

  11. def assert ( condition : Boolean , clue : Any ) : Unit

    Assert that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true.

    Assert that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException with the String obtained by invoking toString on the specified message as the exception's detail message.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assert

    clue

    An objects whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

  12. def assert ( condition : Boolean ) : Unit

    Assert that a boolean condition is true.

    Assert that a boolean condition is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assert

  13. def clone () : AnyRef

    This method creates and returns a copy of the receiver object.

    This method creates and returns a copy of the receiver object.

    The default implementation of the clone method is platform dependent.

    returns

    a copy of the receiver object.

    attributes: protected[lang]
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  14. implicit def convertToEqualizer ( left : Any ) : Equalizer

    Implicit conversion from Any to Equalizer, used to enable assertions with === comparisons.

    Implicit conversion from Any to Equalizer, used to enable assertions with === comparisons.

    For more information on this mechanism, see the documentation for </code>Equalizer</code>.

    Because trait Suite mixes in Assertions, this implicit conversion will always be available by default in ScalaTest Suites. This is the only implicit conversion that is in scope by default in every ScalaTest Suite. Other implicit conversions offered by ScalaTest, such as those that support the matchers DSL or invokePrivate, must be explicitly invited into your test code, either by mixing in a trait or importing the members of its companion object. The reason ScalaTest requires you to invite in implicit conversions (with the exception of the implicit conversion for === operator) is because if one of ScalaTest's implicit conversions clashes with an implicit conversion used in the code you are trying to test, your program won't compile. Thus there is a chance that if you are ever trying to use a library or test some code that also offers an implicit conversion involving a === operator, you could run into the problem of a compiler error due to an ambiguous implicit conversion. If that happens, you can turn off the implicit conversion offered by this convertToEqualizer method simply by overriding the method in your Suite subclass, but not marking it as implicit:

    // In your Suite subclass
    override def convertToEqualizer(left: Any) = new Equalizer(left)
    

    left

    the object whose type to convert to Equalizer.

    attributes: implicit
  15. def eq ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    This method is used to test whether the argument (arg0) is a reference to the receiver object (this).

    This method is used to test whether the argument (arg0) is a reference to the receiver object (this).

    The eq method implements an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_relation equivalence relation] on non-null instances of AnyRef: * It is reflexive: for any non-null instance x of type AnyRef, x.eq(x) returns true. * It is symmetric: for any non-null instances x and y of type AnyRef, x.eq(y) returns true if and only if y.eq(x) returns true. * It is transitive: for any non-null instances x, y, and z of type AnyRef if x.eq(y) returns true and y.eq(z) returns true, then x.eq(z) returns true.

    Additionally, the eq method has three other properties. * It is consistent: for any non-null instances x and y of type AnyRef, multiple invocations of x.eq(y) consistently returns true or consistently returns false. * For any non-null instance x of type AnyRef, x.eq(null) and null.eq(x) returns false. * null.eq(null) returns true.

    When overriding the equals or hashCode methods, it is important to ensure that their behavior is consistent with reference equality. Therefore, if two objects are references to each other (o1 eq o2), they should be equal to each other (o1 == o2) and they should hash to the same value (o1.hashCode == o2.hashCode).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for reference equality.

    returns

    true if the argument is a reference to the receiver object; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  16. def equals ( arg0 : Any ) : Boolean

    This method is used to compare the receiver object (this) with the argument object (arg0) for equivalence.

    This method is used to compare the receiver object (this) with the argument object (arg0) for equivalence.

    The default implementations of this method is an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_relation equivalence relation]: * It is reflexive: for any instance x of type Any, x.equals(x) should return true. * It is symmetric: for any instances x and y of type Any, x.equals(y) should return true if and only if y.equals(x) returns true. * It is transitive: for any instances x, y, and z of type AnyRef if x.equals(y) returns true and y.equals(z) returns true, then x.equals(z) should return true.

    If you override this method, you should verify that your implementation remains an equivalence relation. Additionally, when overriding this method it is often necessary to override hashCode to ensure that objects that are "equal" (o1.equals(o2) returns true) hash to the same scala.Int (o1.hashCode.equals(o2.hashCode)).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for equality.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false otherwise.

    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  17. def expect ( expected : Any )( actual : Any ) : Unit

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual.

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual. If the actual value equals the expected value (as determined by ==), expect returns normally. Else, expect throws an TestFailedException whose detail message includes the expected and actual values.

    expected

    the expected value

    actual

    the actual value, which should equal the passed expected value

  18. def expect ( expected : Any , clue : Any )( actual : Any ) : Unit

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual.

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual. If the actual equals the expected (as determined by ==), expect returns normally. Else, if actual is not equal to expected, expect throws an TestFailedException whose detail message includes the expected and actual values, as well as the String obtained by invoking toString on the passed message.

    expected

    the expected value

    clue

    An object whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

    actual

    the actual value, which should equal the passed expected value

  19. def fail ( cause : Throwable ) : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed. The getMessage method of the thrown TestFailedException will return cause.toString().

    cause

    a Throwable that indicates the cause of the failure.

  20. def fail ( message : String , cause : Throwable ) : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    message

    A message describing the failure.

    cause

    A Throwable that indicates the cause of the failure.

  21. def fail ( message : String ) : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test failed.

    message

    A message describing the failure.

  22. def fail () : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException to indicate a test failed.

  23. def finalize () : Unit

    This method is called by the garbage collector on the receiver object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object.

    This method is called by the garbage collector on the receiver object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object.

    The details of when and if the finalize method are invoked, as well as the interaction between finalize and non-local returns and exceptions, are all platform dependent.

    attributes: protected[lang]
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  24. def getClass () : java.lang.Class[_]

    Returns a representation that corresponds to the dynamic class of the receiver object.

    Returns a representation that corresponds to the dynamic class of the receiver object.

    The nature of the representation is platform dependent.

    returns

    a representation that corresponds to the dynamic class of the receiver object.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  25. def hashCode () : Int

    Returns a hash code value for the object.

    Returns a hash code value for the object.

    The default hashing algorithm is platform dependent.

    Note that it is allowed for two objects to have identical hash codes (o1.hashCode.equals(o2.hashCode)) yet not be equal (o1.equals(o2) returns false). A degenerate implementation could always return 0. However, it is required that if two objects are equal (o1.equals(o2) returns true) that they have identical hash codes (o1.hashCode.equals(o2.hashCode)). Therefore, when overriding this method, be sure to verify that the behavior is consistent with the equals method.

    returns

    the hash code value for the object.

    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  26. def intercept [T <: AnyRef] ( f : ⇒ Any )(implicit manifest : Manifest[T] ) : T

    Intercept and return an exception that's expected to be thrown by the passed function value.

    Intercept and return an exception that's expected to be thrown by the passed function value. The thrown exception must be an instance of the type specified by the type parameter of this method. This method invokes the passed function. If the function throws an exception that's an instance of the specified type, this method returns that exception. Else, whether the passed function returns normally or completes abruptly with a different exception, this method throws TestFailedException.

    Note that the type specified as this method's type parameter may represent any subtype of AnyRef, not just Throwable or one of its subclasses. In Scala, exceptions can be caught based on traits they implement, so it may at times make sense to specify a trait that the intercepted exception's class must mix in. If a class instance is passed for a type that could not possibly be used to catch an exception (such as String, for example), this method will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException.

    f

    the function value that should throw the expected exception

    manifest

    an implicit Manifest representing the type of the specified type parameter.

    returns

    the intercepted exception, if it is of the expected type

  27. def isInstanceOf [T0] : Boolean

    This method is used to test whether the dynamic type of the receiver object is T0.

    This method is used to test whether the dynamic type of the receiver object is T0.

    Note that the test result of the test is modulo Scala's erasure semantics. Therefore the expression 1.isInstanceOf[String] will return false, while the expression List(1).isInstanceOf[List[String]] will return true. In the latter example, because the type argument is erased as part of compilation it is not possible to check whether the contents of the list are of the requested typed.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is an instance of erasure of type T0; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  28. def ne ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    o.ne(arg0) is the same as !(o.eq(arg0)).

    o.ne(arg0) is the same as !(o.eq(arg0)).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for reference dis-equality.

    returns

    false if the argument is not a reference to the receiver object; true otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  29. def notify () : Unit

    Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  30. def notifyAll () : Unit

    Wakes up all threads that are waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    Wakes up all threads that are waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  31. def synchronized [T0] ( arg0 : ⇒ T0 ) : T0

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  32. def toString () : String

    Returns a string representation of the object.

    Returns a string representation of the object.

    The default representation is platform dependent.

    returns

    a string representation of the object.

    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  33. def wait () : Unit

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  34. def wait ( arg0 : Long , arg1 : Int ) : Unit

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  35. def wait ( arg0 : Long ) : Unit

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  36. def withClue ( clue : Any )( fun : ⇒ Unit ) : Unit

    Executes the block of code passed as the second parameter, and, if it completes abruptly with a ModifiableMessage exception, prepends the "clue" string passed as the first parameter to the beginning of the detail message of that thrown exception, then rethrows it.

    Executes the block of code passed as the second parameter, and, if it completes abruptly with a ModifiableMessage exception, prepends the "clue" string passed as the first parameter to the beginning of the detail message of that thrown exception, then rethrows it. If clue does not end in a white space character, one space will be added between it and the existing detail message (unless the detail message is not defined).

    This method allows you to add more information about what went wrong that will be reported when a test fails. Here's an example:

    withClue("(Employee's name was: " + employee.name + ")") {
      intercept[IllegalArgumentException] {
        employee.getTask(-1)
      }
    }
    

    If an invocation of intercept completed abruptly with an exception, the resulting message would be something like:

    (Employee's name was Bob Jones) Expected IllegalArgumentException to be thrown, but no exception was thrown
    

Inherited from AnyRef

Inherited from Any