org.scalatest.matchers

ShouldMatchers

trait ShouldMatchers extends Matchers with ShouldVerb

Trait that provides a domain specific language (DSL) for expressing assertions in tests using the word should. (If you prefer the word must, you can alternatively mix in trait MustMatchers.) For example, if you mix ShouldMatchers into a suite class, you can write an equality assertion in that suite like this:

object should equal (3)

Here object is a variable, and can be of any type. If the object is an Int with the value 3, execution will continue (i.e., the expression will result in the unit value, ()). Otherwise, a TestFailedException will be thrown with a detail message that explains the problem, such as "7 did not equal 3". This TestFailedException will cause the test to fail.

The left should equal (right) syntax works by calling == on the left value, passing in the right value, on every type except arrays. If both left and right are arrays, deep will be invoked on both left and right before comparing them with ==. Thus, even though this expression will yield false, because Array's equals method compares object identity:

Array(1, 2) == Array(1, 2) // yields false

The following expression will not result in a TestFailedException, because ScalaTest compares the two arrays structurally, taking into consideration the equality of the array's contents:

Array(1, 2) should equal (Array(1, 2)) // succeeds (i.e., does not throw TestFailedException)

If you ever do want to verify that two arrays are actually the same object (have the same identity), you can use the be theSameInstanceAs syntax, described below.

Checking size and length

You can check the size or length of just about any type of object for which it would make sense. Here's how checking for length looks:

object should have length (3)

Size is similar:

object should have size (10)

The length syntax can be used with any object that has a field or method named length or a method named getLength. Similarly, the size syntax can be used with any object that has a field or method named size or a method named getSize. The type of a length or size field, or return type of a method, must be either Int or Long. Any such method must take no parameters. (The Scala compiler will ensure at compile time that the object on which should is being invoked has the appropriate structure.)

Checking strings

You can check for whether a string starts with, ends with, or includes a substring like this:

string should startWith ("Hello")
string should endWith ("world")
string should include ("seven")

You can check for whether a string starts with, ends with, or includes a regular expression, like this:

string should startWith regex ("Hel*o")
string should endWith regex ("wo.ld")
string should include regex ("wo.ld")

And you can check whether a string fully matches a regular expression, like this:

string should fullyMatch regex ("""(-)?(\d+)(\.\d*)?""")

The regular expression passed following the regex token can be either a String or a scala.util.matching.Regex.

Greater and less than

You can check whether any type that is, or can be implicitly converted to, an Ordered[T] is greater than, less than, greater than or equal, or less than or equal to a value of type T. The syntax is:

one should be < (7)
one should be > (0)
one should be <= (7)
one should be >= (0)

Checking equality with be ===

An alternate way to check for equality of two objects is to use be with ===. Here's an example:

object should be === (3)

Here object is a variable, and can be of any type. If the object is an Int with the value 3, execution will continue (i.e., the expression will result in the unit value, ()). Otherwise, a TestFailedException will be thrown with a detail message that explains the problem, such as "7 was not equal to 3". This TestFailedException will cause the test to fail.

The left should be === (right) syntax works by calling == on the left value, passing in the right value, on every type except arrays. If both left and right are arrays, deep will be invoked on both left and right before comparing them with ==. Thus, even though this expression will yield false, because Array's equals method compares object identity:

Array(1, 2) == Array(1, 2) // yields false

The following expression will not result in a TestFailedException, because ScalaTest compares the two arrays structurally, taking into consideration the equality of the array's contents:

Array(1, 2) should be === (Array(1, 2)) // succeeds (i.e., does not throw TestFailedException)

If you ever do want to verify that two arrays are actually the same object (have the same identity), you can use the be theSameInstanceAs syntax, described below.

Checking Boolean properties with be

If an object has a method that takes no parameters and returns boolean, you can check it by placing a Symbol (after be) that specifies the name of the method (excluding an optional prefix of "is"). A symbol literal in Scala begins with a tick mark and ends at the first non-identifier character. Thus, 'empty results in a Symbol object at runtime, as does 'defined and 'file. Here's an example:

emptySet should be ('empty)

Given this code, ScalaTest will use reflection to look on the object referenced from emptySet for a method that takes no parameters and results in Boolean, with either the name empty or isEmpty. If found, it will invoke that method. If the method returns true, execution will continue. But if it returns false, a TestFailedException will be thrown that will contain a detail message, such as:

Set(1, 2, 3) was not empty

This be syntax can be used with any type. If the object does not have an appropriately named predicate method, you'll get a TestFailedException at runtime with a detail message that explains the problem. (For the details on how a field or method is selected during this process, see the documentation for BeWord.)

If you think it reads better, you can optionally put a or an after be. For example, java.io.File has two predicate methods, isFile and isDirectory. Thus with a File object named temp, you could write:

temp should be a ('file)

Or, given java.awt.event.KeyEvent has a method isActionKey that takes no arguments and returns Boolean, you could assert that a KeyEvent is an action key with:

keyEvent should be an ('actionKey)

If you prefer to check Boolean properties in a type-safe manner, you can use a BePropertyMatcher. This would allow you to write expressions such as:

emptySet should be (empty)
temp should be a (file)
keyEvent should be an (actionKey)

These expressions would fail to compile if should is used on an inappropriate type, as determined by the type parameter of the BePropertyMatcher being used. (For example, file in this example would likely be of type BePropertyMatcher[java.io.File]. If used with an appropriate type, such an expression will compile and at run time the Boolean property method or field will be accessed directly; i.e., no reflection will be used. See the documentation for BePropertyMatcher for more information.

Using custom BeMatchers

If you want to create a new way of using be, which doesn't map to an actual property on the type you care about, you can create a BeMatcher. You could use this, for example, to create BeMatcher[Int] called odd, which would match any odd Int, and even, which would match any even Int. Given this pair of BeMatchers, you could check whether an Int was odd or even with expressions like:

num should be (odd)
num should not be (even)

For more information, see the documentation for BeMatcher.

Checking object identity

If you need to check that two references refer to the exact same object, you can write:

ref1 should be theSameInstanceAs (ref2)

Checking numbers against a range

To check whether a floating point number has a value that exactly matches another, you can use should equal:

sevenDotOh should equal (7.0)

Often, however, you may want to check whether a floating point number is within a range. You can do that using be and plusOrMinus, like this:

sevenDotOh should be (6.9 plusOrMinus 0.2)

This expression will cause a TestFailedException to be thrown if the floating point value, sevenDotOh is outside the range 6.7 to 7.1. You can also use plusOrMinus with integral types, for example:

seven should be (6 plusOrMinus 2)

Traversables, iterables, sets, sequences, and maps

You can use some of the syntax shown previously with Iterable and its subtypes. For example, you can check whether an Iterable is empty, like this:

iterable should be ('empty)

You can check the length of an Seq (Array, List, etc.), like this:

array should have length (3)
list should have length (9)

You can check the size of any Traversable, like this:

map should have size (20)
set should have size (90)

In addition, you can check whether an Iterable contains a particular element, like this:

iterable should contain ("five")

You can also check whether a Map contains a particular key, or value, like this:

map should contain key (1)
map should contain value ("Howdy")

Java collections and maps

You can use similar syntax on Java collections (java.util.Collection) and maps (java.util.Map). For example, you can check whether a Java Collection or Map is empty, like this:

javaCollection should be ('empty)
javaMap should be ('empty)

Even though Java's List type doesn't actually have a length or getLength method, you can nevertheless check the length of a Java List (java.util.List) like this:

javaList should have length (9)

You can check the size of any Java Collection or Map, like this:

javaMap should have size (20)
javaSet should have size (90)

In addition, you can check whether a Java Collection contains a particular element, like this:

javaCollection should contain ("five")

One difference to note between the syntax supported on Java collections and that of Scala iterables is that you can't use contain (...) syntax with a Java Map. Java differs from Scala in that its Map is not a subtype of its Collection type. If you want to check that a Java Map contains a specific key/value pair, the best approach is to invoke entrySet on the Java Map and check that entry set for the appropriate element (a java.util.Map.Entry) using contain (...).

Despite this difference, the other (more commonly used) map matcher syntax works just fine on Java Maps. You can, for example, check whether a Java Map contains a particular key, or value, like this:

javaMap should contain key (1)
javaMap should contain value ("Howdy")

Be as an equality comparison

All uses of be other than those shown previously perform an equality comparison. In other words, they work the same as equals. This redundance between be and equals exists because it enables syntax that sometimes sounds more natural. For example, instead of writing:

result should equal (null)

You can write:

result should be (null)

(Hopefully you won't write that too much given null is error prone, and Option is usually a better, well, option.) Here are some other examples of be used for equality comparison:

sum should be (7.0)
boring should be (false)
fun should be (true)
list should be (Nil)
option should be (None)
option should be (Some(1))

As with equal, using be on two arrays results in deep being called on both arrays prior to calling equal. As a result, the following expression would not throw a TestFailedException:

Array(1, 2) should be (Array(1, 2)) // succeeds (i.e., does not throw TestFailedException)

Because be is used in several ways in ScalaTest matcher syntax, just as it is used in many ways in English, one potential point of confusion in the event of a failure is determining whether be was being used as an equality comparison or in some other way, such as a property assertion. To make it more obvious when be is being used for equality, the failure messages generated for those equality checks will include the word equal in them. For example, if this expression fails with a TestFailedException:

option should be (Some(1))

The detail message in that TestFailedException will include the words "equal to" to signify be was in this case being used for equality comparison:

Some(2) was not equal to Some(1)

Being negative

If you wish to check the opposite of some condition, you can simply insert not in the expression. Here are a few examples:

object should not be (null)
sum should not be <= (10)
mylist should not equal (yourList)
string should not startWith ("Hello")

Logical expressions with and and or

You can also combine matcher expressions with and and/or or, however, you must place parentheses or curly braces around the and or or expression. For example, this and-expression would not compile, because the parentheses are missing:

map should contain key ("two") and not contain value (7) // ERROR, parentheses missing!

Instead, you need to write:

map should (contain key ("two") and not contain value (7))

Here are some more examples:

number should (be > (0) and be <= (10))
option should (equal (Some(List(1, 2, 3))) or be (None))
string should (
  equal ("fee") or
  equal ("fie") or
  equal ("foe") or
  equal ("fum")
)

Two differences exist between expressions composed of these and and or operators and the expressions you can write on regular Booleans using its && and || operators. First, expressions with and and or do not short-circuit. The following contrived expression, for example, would print "hello, world!":

"yellow" should (equal ("blue") and equal { println("hello, world!"); "green" })

In other words, the entire and or or expression is always evaluated, so you'll see any side effects of the right-hand side even if evaluating only the left-hand side is enough to determine the ultimate result of the larger expression. Failure messages produced by these expressions will "short-circuit," however, mentioning only the left-hand side if that's enough to determine the result of the entire expression. This "short-circuiting" behavior of failure messages is intended to make it easier and quicker for you to ascertain which part of the expression caused the failure. The failure message for the previous expression, for example, would be:

"yellow" did not equal "blue"

Most likely this lack of short-circuiting would rarely be noticeable, because evaluating the right hand side will usually not involve a side effect. One situation where it might show up, however, is if you attempt to and a null check on a variable with an expression that uses the variable, like this:

map should (not be (null) and contain key ("ouch"))

If map is null, the test will indeed fail, but with a NullPointerException, not a TestFailedException. Here, the NullPointerException is the visible right-hand side effect. To get a TestFailedException, you would need to check each assertion separately:

map should not be (null)
map should contain key ("ouch")

If map is null in this case, the null check in the first expression will fail with a TestFailedException, and the second expression will never be executed.

The other difference with Boolean operators is that although && has a higher precedence than ||, and and or have the same precedence. Thus although the Boolean expression (a || b && c) will evaluate the && expression before the || expression, like (a || (b && c)), the following expression:

traversable should (contain (7) or contain (8) and have size (9))

Will evaluate left to right, as:

traversable should ((contain (7) or contain (8)) and have size (9))

If you really want the and part to be evaluated first, you'll need to put in parentheses, like this:

traversable should (contain (7) or (contain (8) and have size (9)))

Working with Options

ScalaTest matchers has no special support for Options, but you can work with them quite easily using syntax shown previously. For example, if you wish to check whether an option is None, you can write any of:

option should equal (None)
option should be (None)
option should not be ('defined)
option should be ('empty)

If you wish to check an option is defined, and holds a specific value, you can write either of:

option should equal (Some("hi"))
option should be (Some("hi"))

If you only wish to check that an option is defined, but don't care what it's value is, you can write:

option should be ('defined)

Checking arbitrary properties with have

Using have, you can check properties of any type, where a property is an attribute of any object that can be retrieved either by a public field, method, or JavaBean-style get or is method, like this:

book should have (
  'title ("Programming in Scala"),
  'author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  'pubYear (2008)
)

This expression will use reflection to ensure the title, author, and pubYear properties of object book are equal to the specified values. For example, it will ensure that book has either a public Java field or method named title, or a public method named getTitle, that when invoked (or accessed in the field case) results in a the string "Programming in Scala". If all specified properties exist and have their expected values, respectively, execution will continue. If one or more of the properties either does not exist, or exists but results in an unexpected value, a TestFailedException will be thrown that explains the problem. (For the details on how a field or method is selected during this process, see the documentation for HavePropertyMatcherGenerator.)

When you use this syntax, you must place one or more property values in parentheses after have, seperated by commas, where a property value is a symbol indicating the name of the property followed by the expected value in parentheses. The only exceptions to this rule is the syntax for checking size and length shown previously, which does not require parentheses. If you forget and put parentheses in, however, everything will still work as you'd expect. Thus instead of writing:

array should have length (3)
set should have size (90)

You can alternatively, write:

array should have (length (3))
set should have (size (90))

If a property has a value different from the specified expected value, a TestFailedError will be thrown with a detail message that explains the problem. For example, if you assert the following on a book whose title is Moby Dick:

book should have ('title ("A Tale of Two Cities"))

You'll get a TestFailedException with this detail message:

The title property had value "Moby Dick", instead of its expected value "A Tale of Two Cities",
on object Book("Moby Dick", "Melville", 1851)

If you prefer to check properties in a type-safe manner, you can use a HavePropertyMatcher. This would allow you to write expressions such as:

book should have (
  title ("Programming in Scala"),
  author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  pubYear (2008)
)

These expressions would fail to compile if should is used on an inappropriate type, as determined by the type parameter of the HavePropertyMatcher being used. (For example, title in this example might be of type HavePropertyMatcher[org.publiclibrary.Book]. If used with an appropriate type, such an expression will compile and at run time the property method or field will be accessed directly; i.e., no reflection will be used. See the documentation for HavePropertyMatcher for more information.

Using custom matchers

If none of the built-in matcher syntax (or options shown so far for extending the syntax) satisfy a particular need you have, you can create custom Matchers that allow you to place your own syntax directly after should. For example, class java.io.File has a method exists, which indicates whether a file of a certain path and name exists. Because the exists method takes no parameters and returns Boolean, you can call it using be with a symbol or BePropertyMatcher, yielding assertions like:

file should be ('exists)  // using a symbol
file should be (inExistance)   // using a BePropertyMatcher

Although these expressions will achieve your goal of throwing a TestFailedException if the file does not exist, they don't produce the most readable code because the English is either incorrect or awkward. In this case, you might want to create a custom Matcher[java.io.File] named exist, which you could then use to write expressions like:

// using a plain-old Matcher
file should exist
file should not (exist)
file should (exist and have ('name ("temp.txt")))

Note that when you use custom Matchers, you will need to put parentheses around the custom matcher in more cases than with the built-in syntax. For example you will often need the parentheses after not, as shown above. (There's no penalty for always surrounding custom matchers with parentheses, and if you ever leave them off when they are needed, you'll get a compiler error.) For more information about how to create custom Matchers, please see the documentation for the Matcher trait.

Checking for expected exceptions

Sometimes you need to test whether a method throws an expected exception under certain circumstances, such as when invalid arguments are passed to the method. With ShouldMatchers mixed in, you can check for an expected exception like this:

evaluating { s.charAt(-1) } should produce [IndexOutOfBoundsException]

If charAt throws an instance of StringIndexOutOfBoundsException, this expression will result in that exception. But if charAt completes normally, or throws a different exception, this expression will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException. This expression returns the caught exception so that you can inspect it further if you wish, for example, to ensure that data contained inside the exception has the expected values. Here's an example:

val thrown = evaluating { s.charAt(-1) } should produce [IndexOutOfBoundsException]
thrown.getMessage should equal ("String index out of range: -1")

Those pesky parens

Perhaps the most tricky part of writing assertions using ScalaTest matchers is remembering when you need or don't need parentheses, but bearing in mind a few simple rules should help. It is also reassuring to know that if you ever leave off a set of parentheses when they are required, your code will not compile. Thus the compiler will help you remember when you need the parens. That said, the rules are:

1. Although you don't always need them, it is recommended style to always put parentheses around right-hand values, such as the 7 in num should equal (7):

result should equal (4)
array should have length (3)
book should have (
  'title ("Programming in Scala"),
  'author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  'pubYear (2008)
)
option should be ('defined)
catMap should (contain key (9) and contain value ("lives"))
keyEvent should be an ('actionKey)
javaSet should have size (90)

2. Except for length and size, you must always put parentheses around the list of one or more property values following a have:

file should (exist and have ('name ("temp.txt")))
book should have (
  title ("Programming in Scala"),
  author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  pubYear (2008)
)
javaList should have length (9) // parens optional for length and size

3. You must always put parentheses around and and or expressions, as in:

catMap should (contain key (9) and contain value ("lives"))
number should (equal (2) or equal (4) or equal (8))

4. Although you don't always need them, it is recommended style to always put parentheses around custom Matchers when they appear directly after not:

file should exist
file should not (exist)
file should (exist and have ('name ("temp.txt")))
file should (not (exist) and have ('name ("temp.txt"))
file should (have ('name ("temp.txt") or exist)
file should (have ('name ("temp.txt") or not (exist))

That's it. With a bit of practice it should become natural to you, and the compiler will always be there to tell you if you forget a set of needed parentheses.

Trait that provides a domain specific language (DSL) for expressing assertions in tests using the word should. (If you prefer the word must, you can alternatively mix in trait MustMatchers.) For example, if you mix ShouldMatchers into a suite class, you can write an equality assertion in that suite like this:

object should equal (3)

Here object is a variable, and can be of any type. If the object is an Int with the value 3, execution will continue (i.e., the expression will result in the unit value, ()). Otherwise, a TestFailedException will be thrown with a detail message that explains the problem, such as "7 did not equal 3". This TestFailedException will cause the test to fail.

The left should equal (right) syntax works by calling == on the left value, passing in the right value, on every type except arrays. If both left and right are arrays, deep will be invoked on both left and right before comparing them with ==. Thus, even though this expression will yield false, because Array's equals method compares object identity:

Array(1, 2) == Array(1, 2) // yields false

The following expression will not result in a TestFailedException, because ScalaTest compares the two arrays structurally, taking into consideration the equality of the array's contents:

Array(1, 2) should equal (Array(1, 2)) // succeeds (i.e., does not throw TestFailedException)

If you ever do want to verify that two arrays are actually the same object (have the same identity), you can use the be theSameInstanceAs syntax, described below.

Checking size and length

You can check the size or length of just about any type of object for which it would make sense. Here's how checking for length looks:

object should have length (3)

Size is similar:

object should have size (10)

The length syntax can be used with any object that has a field or method named length or a method named getLength. Similarly, the size syntax can be used with any object that has a field or method named size or a method named getSize. The type of a length or size field, or return type of a method, must be either Int or Long. Any such method must take no parameters. (The Scala compiler will ensure at compile time that the object on which should is being invoked has the appropriate structure.)

Checking strings

You can check for whether a string starts with, ends with, or includes a substring like this:

string should startWith ("Hello")
string should endWith ("world")
string should include ("seven")

You can check for whether a string starts with, ends with, or includes a regular expression, like this:

string should startWith regex ("Hel*o")
string should endWith regex ("wo.ld")
string should include regex ("wo.ld")

And you can check whether a string fully matches a regular expression, like this:

string should fullyMatch regex ("""(-)?(\d+)(\.\d*)?""")

The regular expression passed following the regex token can be either a String or a scala.util.matching.Regex.

Greater and less than

You can check whether any type that is, or can be implicitly converted to, an Ordered[T] is greater than, less than, greater than or equal, or less than or equal to a value of type T. The syntax is:

one should be < (7)
one should be > (0)
one should be <= (7)
one should be >= (0)

Checking equality with be ===

An alternate way to check for equality of two objects is to use be with ===. Here's an example:

object should be === (3)

Here object is a variable, and can be of any type. If the object is an Int with the value 3, execution will continue (i.e., the expression will result in the unit value, ()). Otherwise, a TestFailedException will be thrown with a detail message that explains the problem, such as "7 was not equal to 3". This TestFailedException will cause the test to fail.

The left should be === (right) syntax works by calling == on the left value, passing in the right value, on every type except arrays. If both left and right are arrays, deep will be invoked on both left and right before comparing them with ==. Thus, even though this expression will yield false, because Array's equals method compares object identity:

Array(1, 2) == Array(1, 2) // yields false

The following expression will not result in a TestFailedException, because ScalaTest compares the two arrays structurally, taking into consideration the equality of the array's contents:

Array(1, 2) should be === (Array(1, 2)) // succeeds (i.e., does not throw TestFailedException)

If you ever do want to verify that two arrays are actually the same object (have the same identity), you can use the be theSameInstanceAs syntax, described below.

Checking Boolean properties with be

If an object has a method that takes no parameters and returns boolean, you can check it by placing a Symbol (after be) that specifies the name of the method (excluding an optional prefix of "is"). A symbol literal in Scala begins with a tick mark and ends at the first non-identifier character. Thus, 'empty results in a Symbol object at runtime, as does 'defined and 'file. Here's an example:

emptySet should be ('empty)

Given this code, ScalaTest will use reflection to look on the object referenced from emptySet for a method that takes no parameters and results in Boolean, with either the name empty or isEmpty. If found, it will invoke that method. If the method returns true, execution will continue. But if it returns false, a TestFailedException will be thrown that will contain a detail message, such as:

Set(1, 2, 3) was not empty

This be syntax can be used with any type. If the object does not have an appropriately named predicate method, you'll get a TestFailedException at runtime with a detail message that explains the problem. (For the details on how a field or method is selected during this process, see the documentation for BeWord.)

If you think it reads better, you can optionally put a or an after be. For example, java.io.File has two predicate methods, isFile and isDirectory. Thus with a File object named temp, you could write:

temp should be a ('file)

Or, given java.awt.event.KeyEvent has a method isActionKey that takes no arguments and returns Boolean, you could assert that a KeyEvent is an action key with:

keyEvent should be an ('actionKey)

If you prefer to check Boolean properties in a type-safe manner, you can use a BePropertyMatcher. This would allow you to write expressions such as:

emptySet should be (empty)
temp should be a (file)
keyEvent should be an (actionKey)

These expressions would fail to compile if should is used on an inappropriate type, as determined by the type parameter of the BePropertyMatcher being used. (For example, file in this example would likely be of type BePropertyMatcher[java.io.File]. If used with an appropriate type, such an expression will compile and at run time the Boolean property method or field will be accessed directly; i.e., no reflection will be used. See the documentation for BePropertyMatcher for more information.

Using custom BeMatchers

If you want to create a new way of using be, which doesn't map to an actual property on the type you care about, you can create a BeMatcher. You could use this, for example, to create BeMatcher[Int] called odd, which would match any odd Int, and even, which would match any even Int. Given this pair of BeMatchers, you could check whether an Int was odd or even with expressions like:

num should be (odd)
num should not be (even)

For more information, see the documentation for BeMatcher.

Checking object identity

If you need to check that two references refer to the exact same object, you can write:

ref1 should be theSameInstanceAs (ref2)

Checking numbers against a range

To check whether a floating point number has a value that exactly matches another, you can use should equal:

sevenDotOh should equal (7.0)

Often, however, you may want to check whether a floating point number is within a range. You can do that using be and plusOrMinus, like this:

sevenDotOh should be (6.9 plusOrMinus 0.2)

This expression will cause a TestFailedException to be thrown if the floating point value, sevenDotOh is outside the range 6.7 to 7.1. You can also use plusOrMinus with integral types, for example:

seven should be (6 plusOrMinus 2)

Traversables, iterables, sets, sequences, and maps

You can use some of the syntax shown previously with Iterable and its subtypes. For example, you can check whether an Iterable is empty, like this:

iterable should be ('empty)

You can check the length of an Seq (Array, List, etc.), like this:

array should have length (3)
list should have length (9)

You can check the size of any Traversable, like this:

map should have size (20)
set should have size (90)

In addition, you can check whether an Iterable contains a particular element, like this:

iterable should contain ("five")

You can also check whether a Map contains a particular key, or value, like this:

map should contain key (1)
map should contain value ("Howdy")

Java collections and maps

You can use similar syntax on Java collections (java.util.Collection) and maps (java.util.Map). For example, you can check whether a Java Collection or Map is empty, like this:

javaCollection should be ('empty)
javaMap should be ('empty)

Even though Java's List type doesn't actually have a length or getLength method, you can nevertheless check the length of a Java List (java.util.List) like this:

javaList should have length (9)

You can check the size of any Java Collection or Map, like this:

javaMap should have size (20)
javaSet should have size (90)

In addition, you can check whether a Java Collection contains a particular element, like this:

javaCollection should contain ("five")

One difference to note between the syntax supported on Java collections and that of Scala iterables is that you can't use contain (...) syntax with a Java Map. Java differs from Scala in that its Map is not a subtype of its Collection type. If you want to check that a Java Map contains a specific key/value pair, the best approach is to invoke entrySet on the Java Map and check that entry set for the appropriate element (a java.util.Map.Entry) using contain (...).

Despite this difference, the other (more commonly used) map matcher syntax works just fine on Java Maps. You can, for example, check whether a Java Map contains a particular key, or value, like this:

javaMap should contain key (1)
javaMap should contain value ("Howdy")

Be as an equality comparison

All uses of be other than those shown previously perform an equality comparison. In other words, they work the same as equals. This redundance between be and equals exists because it enables syntax that sometimes sounds more natural. For example, instead of writing:

result should equal (null)

You can write:

result should be (null)

(Hopefully you won't write that too much given null is error prone, and Option is usually a better, well, option.) Here are some other examples of be used for equality comparison:

sum should be (7.0)
boring should be (false)
fun should be (true)
list should be (Nil)
option should be (None)
option should be (Some(1))

As with equal, using be on two arrays results in deep being called on both arrays prior to calling equal. As a result, the following expression would not throw a TestFailedException:

Array(1, 2) should be (Array(1, 2)) // succeeds (i.e., does not throw TestFailedException)

Because be is used in several ways in ScalaTest matcher syntax, just as it is used in many ways in English, one potential point of confusion in the event of a failure is determining whether be was being used as an equality comparison or in some other way, such as a property assertion. To make it more obvious when be is being used for equality, the failure messages generated for those equality checks will include the word equal in them. For example, if this expression fails with a TestFailedException:

option should be (Some(1))

The detail message in that TestFailedException will include the words "equal to" to signify be was in this case being used for equality comparison:

Some(2) was not equal to Some(1)

Being negative

If you wish to check the opposite of some condition, you can simply insert not in the expression. Here are a few examples:

object should not be (null)
sum should not be <= (10)
mylist should not equal (yourList)
string should not startWith ("Hello")

Logical expressions with and and or

You can also combine matcher expressions with and and/or or, however, you must place parentheses or curly braces around the and or or expression. For example, this and-expression would not compile, because the parentheses are missing:

map should contain key ("two") and not contain value (7) // ERROR, parentheses missing!

Instead, you need to write:

map should (contain key ("two") and not contain value (7))

Here are some more examples:

number should (be > (0) and be <= (10))
option should (equal (Some(List(1, 2, 3))) or be (None))
string should (
  equal ("fee") or
  equal ("fie") or
  equal ("foe") or
  equal ("fum")
)

Two differences exist between expressions composed of these and and or operators and the expressions you can write on regular Booleans using its && and || operators. First, expressions with and and or do not short-circuit. The following contrived expression, for example, would print "hello, world!":

"yellow" should (equal ("blue") and equal { println("hello, world!"); "green" })

In other words, the entire and or or expression is always evaluated, so you'll see any side effects of the right-hand side even if evaluating only the left-hand side is enough to determine the ultimate result of the larger expression. Failure messages produced by these expressions will "short-circuit," however, mentioning only the left-hand side if that's enough to determine the result of the entire expression. This "short-circuiting" behavior of failure messages is intended to make it easier and quicker for you to ascertain which part of the expression caused the failure. The failure message for the previous expression, for example, would be:

"yellow" did not equal "blue"

Most likely this lack of short-circuiting would rarely be noticeable, because evaluating the right hand side will usually not involve a side effect. One situation where it might show up, however, is if you attempt to and a null check on a variable with an expression that uses the variable, like this:

map should (not be (null) and contain key ("ouch"))

If map is null, the test will indeed fail, but with a NullPointerException, not a TestFailedException. Here, the NullPointerException is the visible right-hand side effect. To get a TestFailedException, you would need to check each assertion separately:

map should not be (null)
map should contain key ("ouch")

If map is null in this case, the null check in the first expression will fail with a TestFailedException, and the second expression will never be executed.

The other difference with Boolean operators is that although && has a higher precedence than ||, and and or have the same precedence. Thus although the Boolean expression (a || b && c) will evaluate the && expression before the || expression, like (a || (b && c)), the following expression:

traversable should (contain (7) or contain (8) and have size (9))

Will evaluate left to right, as:

traversable should ((contain (7) or contain (8)) and have size (9))

If you really want the and part to be evaluated first, you'll need to put in parentheses, like this:

traversable should (contain (7) or (contain (8) and have size (9)))

Working with Options

ScalaTest matchers has no special support for Options, but you can work with them quite easily using syntax shown previously. For example, if you wish to check whether an option is None, you can write any of:

option should equal (None)
option should be (None)
option should not be ('defined)
option should be ('empty)

If you wish to check an option is defined, and holds a specific value, you can write either of:

option should equal (Some("hi"))
option should be (Some("hi"))

If you only wish to check that an option is defined, but don't care what it's value is, you can write:

option should be ('defined)

Checking arbitrary properties with have

Using have, you can check properties of any type, where a property is an attribute of any object that can be retrieved either by a public field, method, or JavaBean-style get or is method, like this:

book should have (
  'title ("Programming in Scala"),
  'author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  'pubYear (2008)
)

This expression will use reflection to ensure the title, author, and pubYear properties of object book are equal to the specified values. For example, it will ensure that book has either a public Java field or method named title, or a public method named getTitle, that when invoked (or accessed in the field case) results in a the string "Programming in Scala". If all specified properties exist and have their expected values, respectively, execution will continue. If one or more of the properties either does not exist, or exists but results in an unexpected value, a TestFailedException will be thrown that explains the problem. (For the details on how a field or method is selected during this process, see the documentation for HavePropertyMatcherGenerator.)

When you use this syntax, you must place one or more property values in parentheses after have, seperated by commas, where a property value is a symbol indicating the name of the property followed by the expected value in parentheses. The only exceptions to this rule is the syntax for checking size and length shown previously, which does not require parentheses. If you forget and put parentheses in, however, everything will still work as you'd expect. Thus instead of writing:

array should have length (3)
set should have size (90)

You can alternatively, write:

array should have (length (3))
set should have (size (90))

If a property has a value different from the specified expected value, a TestFailedError will be thrown with a detail message that explains the problem. For example, if you assert the following on a book whose title is Moby Dick:

book should have ('title ("A Tale of Two Cities"))

You'll get a TestFailedException with this detail message:

The title property had value "Moby Dick", instead of its expected value "A Tale of Two Cities",
on object Book("Moby Dick", "Melville", 1851)

If you prefer to check properties in a type-safe manner, you can use a HavePropertyMatcher. This would allow you to write expressions such as:

book should have (
  title ("Programming in Scala"),
  author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  pubYear (2008)
)

These expressions would fail to compile if should is used on an inappropriate type, as determined by the type parameter of the HavePropertyMatcher being used. (For example, title in this example might be of type HavePropertyMatcher[org.publiclibrary.Book]. If used with an appropriate type, such an expression will compile and at run time the property method or field will be accessed directly; i.e., no reflection will be used. See the documentation for HavePropertyMatcher for more information.

Using custom matchers

If none of the built-in matcher syntax (or options shown so far for extending the syntax) satisfy a particular need you have, you can create custom Matchers that allow you to place your own syntax directly after should. For example, class java.io.File has a method exists, which indicates whether a file of a certain path and name exists. Because the exists method takes no parameters and returns Boolean, you can call it using be with a symbol or BePropertyMatcher, yielding assertions like:

file should be ('exists)  // using a symbol
file should be (inExistance)   // using a BePropertyMatcher

Although these expressions will achieve your goal of throwing a TestFailedException if the file does not exist, they don't produce the most readable code because the English is either incorrect or awkward. In this case, you might want to create a custom Matcher[java.io.File] named exist, which you could then use to write expressions like:

// using a plain-old Matcher
file should exist
file should not (exist)
file should (exist and have ('name ("temp.txt")))

Note that when you use custom Matchers, you will need to put parentheses around the custom matcher in more cases than with the built-in syntax. For example you will often need the parentheses after not, as shown above. (There's no penalty for always surrounding custom matchers with parentheses, and if you ever leave them off when they are needed, you'll get a compiler error.) For more information about how to create custom Matchers, please see the documentation for the Matcher trait.

Checking for expected exceptions

Sometimes you need to test whether a method throws an expected exception under certain circumstances, such as when invalid arguments are passed to the method. With ShouldMatchers mixed in, you can check for an expected exception like this:

evaluating { s.charAt(-1) } should produce [IndexOutOfBoundsException]

If charAt throws an instance of StringIndexOutOfBoundsException, this expression will result in that exception. But if charAt completes normally, or throws a different exception, this expression will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException. This expression returns the caught exception so that you can inspect it further if you wish, for example, to ensure that data contained inside the exception has the expected values. Here's an example:

val thrown = evaluating { s.charAt(-1) } should produce [IndexOutOfBoundsException]
thrown.getMessage should equal ("String index out of range: -1")

Those pesky parens

Perhaps the most tricky part of writing assertions using ScalaTest matchers is remembering when you need or don't need parentheses, but bearing in mind a few simple rules should help. It is also reassuring to know that if you ever leave off a set of parentheses when they are required, your code will not compile. Thus the compiler will help you remember when you need the parens. That said, the rules are:

1. Although you don't always need them, it is recommended style to always put parentheses around right-hand values, such as the 7 in num should equal (7):

result should equal (4)
array should have length (3)
book should have (
  'title ("Programming in Scala"),
  'author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  'pubYear (2008)
)
option should be ('defined)
catMap should (contain key (9) and contain value ("lives"))
keyEvent should be an ('actionKey)
javaSet should have size (90)

2. Except for length and size, you must always put parentheses around the list of one or more property values following a have:

file should (exist and have ('name ("temp.txt")))
book should have (
  title ("Programming in Scala"),
  author (List("Odersky", "Spoon", "Venners")),
  pubYear (2008)
)
javaList should have length (9) // parens optional for length and size

3. You must always put parentheses around and and or expressions, as in:

catMap should (contain key (9) and contain value ("lives"))
number should (equal (2) or equal (4) or equal (8))

4. Although you don't always need them, it is recommended style to always put parentheses around custom Matchers when they appear directly after not:

file should exist
file should not (exist)
file should (exist and have ('name ("temp.txt")))
file should (not (exist) and have ('name ("temp.txt"))
file should (have ('name ("temp.txt") or exist)
file should (have ('name ("temp.txt") or not (exist))

That's it. With a bit of practice it should become natural to you, and the compiler will always be there to tell you if you forget a set of needed parentheses.

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Type Members

  1. class AWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  2. class AnWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  3. class AnyRefShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  4. class AnyShouldWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  5. class ArrayShouldWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  6. class BeWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  7. class BytePlusOrMinusWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  8. class ByteShouldWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  9. case class ByteTolerance ( right : Byte , tolerance : Byte ) extends Product with Serializable

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  10. class ContainWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  11. class DoublePlusOrMinusWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  12. class DoubleShouldWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  13. case class DoubleTolerance ( right : Double , tolerance : Double ) extends Product with Serializable

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  14. class EndWithWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  15. class Equalizer extends AnyRef

    Class used via an implicit conversion to enable any two objects to be compared with === in assertions in tests.

  16. class EvaluatingApplicationShouldWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  17. class FloatPlusOrMinusWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  18. class FloatShouldWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  19. case class FloatTolerance ( right : Float , tolerance : Float ) extends Product with Serializable

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  20. class FullyMatchWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  21. class HavePropertyMatcherGenerator extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  22. class HaveWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  23. class IncludeWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  24. class IntPlusOrMinusWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  25. class IntShouldWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  26. case class IntTolerance ( right : Int , tolerance : Int ) extends Product with Serializable

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  27. class JavaCollectionShouldWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  28. class JavaListShouldWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  29. class JavaMapShouldWrapper [K, V] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  30. class KeyWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  31. class LengthShouldWrapper [A <: AnyRef] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  32. class LengthWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  33. class LengthWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  34. class ListShouldWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  35. class LongPlusOrMinusWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  36. class LongShouldWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  37. case class LongTolerance ( right : Long , tolerance : Long ) extends Product with Serializable

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  38. class MapShouldWrapper [K, V] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  39. class MatcherWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  40. class NotWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  41. class RegexWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  42. class ResultOfAWordToBePropertyMatcherApplication [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  43. class ResultOfAWordToSymbolApplication extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  44. class ResultOfAnWordToBePropertyMatcherApplication [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  45. class ResultOfAnWordToSymbolApplication extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  46. class ResultOfBeWordForAnyRef [T <: AnyRef] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  47. class ResultOfContainWordForJavaMap [K, V] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  48. class ResultOfContainWordForMap [K, V] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  49. class ResultOfElementWordApplication [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  50. class ResultOfEndWithWordForString extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  51. class ResultOfEvaluatingApplication extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  52. class ResultOfFullyMatchWordForString extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  53. class ResultOfGreaterThanComparison [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  54. class ResultOfGreaterThanOrEqualToComparison [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  55. class ResultOfHaveWordForArray [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  56. class ResultOfHaveWordForJavaCollection [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  57. class ResultOfHaveWordForJavaList [T] extends ResultOfHaveWordForJavaCollection[T]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  58. class ResultOfHaveWordForJavaMap extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  59. class ResultOfHaveWordForLengthWrapper [A] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  60. class ResultOfHaveWordForSeq [T] extends ResultOfHaveWordForTraversable[T]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  61. class ResultOfHaveWordForSizeWrapper [A] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  62. class ResultOfHaveWordForString extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  63. class ResultOfHaveWordForTraversable [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  64. class ResultOfIncludeWordForString extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  65. class ResultOfKeyWordApplication [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  66. class ResultOfLengthWordApplication extends HavePropertyMatcher[AnyRef, Long]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  67. class ResultOfLessThanComparison [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  68. class ResultOfLessThanOrEqualToComparison [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  69. class ResultOfNotWord [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  70. class ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef [T <: AnyRef] extends ResultOfNotWord[T]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  71. class ResultOfNotWordForArray [E] extends ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef[Array[E]]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  72. class ResultOfNotWordForByte extends ResultOfNotWord[Byte]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  73. class ResultOfNotWordForDouble extends ResultOfNotWord[Double]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  74. class ResultOfNotWordForFloat extends ResultOfNotWord[Float]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  75. class ResultOfNotWordForInt extends ResultOfNotWord[Int]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  76. class ResultOfNotWordForJavaCollection [E, T <: Collection[E]] extends ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef[T]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  77. class ResultOfNotWordForJavaList [E, T <: List[E]] extends ResultOfNotWordForJavaCollection[E, T]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  78. class ResultOfNotWordForJavaMap [K, V] extends ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef[Map[K, V]]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  79. class ResultOfNotWordForLengthWrapper [A <: AnyRef] extends ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef[A]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  80. class ResultOfNotWordForLong extends ResultOfNotWord[Long]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  81. class ResultOfNotWordForMap [K, V] extends ResultOfNotWordForTraversable[(K, V), Map[K, V]]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  82. class ResultOfNotWordForSeq [E, T <: Seq[E]] extends ResultOfNotWordForTraversable[E, T]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  83. class ResultOfNotWordForShort extends ResultOfNotWord[Short]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  84. class ResultOfNotWordForSizeWrapper [A <: AnyRef] extends ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef[A]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  85. class ResultOfNotWordForString extends ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef[String]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  86. class ResultOfNotWordForTraversable [E, T <: Traversable[E]] extends ResultOfNotWordForAnyRef[T]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  87. class ResultOfProduceInvocation [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  88. class ResultOfRegexWordApplication extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  89. class ResultOfSizeWordApplication extends HavePropertyMatcher[AnyRef, Long]

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  90. class ResultOfStartWithWordForString extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  91. class ResultOfTheSameInstanceAsApplication extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  92. class ResultOfTripleEqualsApplication extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  93. class ResultOfValueWordApplication [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  94. class SeqShouldWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  95. class ShortPlusOrMinusWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  96. class ShortShouldWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  97. case class ShortTolerance ( right : Short , tolerance : Short ) extends Product with Serializable

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  98. class SizeShouldWrapper [A <: AnyRef] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  99. class SizeWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  100. class SizeWrapper extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  101. class StartWithWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  102. class StringShouldWrapper extends StringShouldWrapperForVerb

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  103. class StringShouldWrapperForVerb extends AnyRef

    This class supports the syntax of FlatSpec, WordSpec, FixtureFlatSpec, and FixtureWordSpec.

  104. class TheSameInstanceAsPhrase extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  105. class TraversableShouldWrapper [T] extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

  106. class ValueWord extends AnyRef

    This class is part of the ScalaTest matchers DSL.

Value Members

  1. def != ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  2. def != ( arg0 : Any ) : Boolean

    o != arg0 is the same as !(o == (arg0)).

    o != arg0 is the same as !(o == (arg0)).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for dis-equality.

    returns

    false if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; true otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  3. def ## () : Int

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  4. def $asInstanceOf [T0] () : T0

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  5. def $isInstanceOf [T0] () : Boolean

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  6. def < [T] ( right : T )(implicit arg0 : (T) ⇒ Ordered[T] ) : ResultOfLessThanComparison[T]

    This method enables the following syntax:

    This method enables the following syntax:

    num should (not be < (10) and not be > (17))
                       ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  7. def <= [T] ( right : T )(implicit arg0 : (T) ⇒ Ordered[T] ) : ResultOfLessThanOrEqualToComparison[T]

    This method enables the following syntax:

    This method enables the following syntax:

    num should (not be <= (10) and not be > (17))
                       ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  8. def == ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    o == arg0 is the same as if (o eq null) arg0 eq null else o.equals(arg0).

    o == arg0 is the same as if (o eq null) arg0 eq null else o.equals(arg0).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for equality.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  9. def == ( arg0 : Any ) : Boolean

    o == arg0 is the same as o.equals(arg0).

    o == arg0 is the same as o.equals(arg0).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for equality.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  10. def === ( right : Any ) : ResultOfTripleEqualsApplication

    This method enables the following syntax:

    This method enables the following syntax:

    num should not be === (10)
                      ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  11. def > [T] ( right : T )(implicit arg0 : (T) ⇒ Ordered[T] ) : ResultOfGreaterThanComparison[T]

    This method enables the following syntax:

    This method enables the following syntax:

    num should (not be > (10) and not be < (7))
                       ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  12. def >= [T] ( right : T )(implicit arg0 : (T) ⇒ Ordered[T] ) : ResultOfGreaterThanOrEqualToComparison[T]

    This method enables the following syntax:

    This method enables the following syntax:

    num should (not be >= (10) and not be < (7))
                       ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  13. object ByteTolerance extends AbstractFunction2[Byte, Byte, ByteTolerance] with Serializable

  14. object DoubleTolerance extends AbstractFunction2[Double, Double, DoubleTolerance] with Serializable

  15. object FloatTolerance extends AbstractFunction2[Float, Float, FloatTolerance] with Serializable

  16. object IntTolerance extends AbstractFunction2[Int, Int, IntTolerance] with Serializable

  17. object LongTolerance extends AbstractFunction2[Long, Long, LongTolerance] with Serializable

  18. object ShortTolerance extends AbstractFunction2[Short, Short, ShortTolerance] with Serializable

  19. val a : AWord

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    badBook should not be a ('goodRead)
                          ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  20. val an : AnWord

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    badBook should not be an (excellentRead)
                          ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  21. def asInstanceOf [T0] : T0

    This method is used to cast the receiver object to be of type T0.

    This method is used to cast the receiver object to be of type T0.

    Note that the success of a cast at runtime is modulo Scala's erasure semantics. Therefore the expression 1.asInstanceOf[String] will throw a ClassCastException at runtime, while the expression List(1).asInstanceOf[List[String]] will not. In the latter example, because the type argument is erased as part of compilation it is not possible to check whether the contents of the list are of the requested typed.

    returns

    the receiver object.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  22. def assert ( o : Option[String] ) : Unit

    Assert that an Option[String] is None.

    Assert that an Option[String] is None. If the condition is None, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException with the String value of the Some included in the TestFailedException's detail message.

    This form of assert is usually called in conjunction with an implicit conversion to Equalizer, using a === comparison, as in:

    assert(a === b)
    

    For more information on how this mechanism works, see the documentation for Equalizer.

    o

    the Option[String] to assert

    definition classes: Assertions
  23. def assert ( o : Option[String] , clue : Any ) : Unit

    Assert that an Option[String] is None.

    Assert that an Option[String] is None. If the condition is None, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException with the String value of the Some, as well as the String obtained by invoking toString on the specified message, included in the TestFailedException's detail message.

    This form of assert is usually called in conjunction with an implicit conversion to Equalizer, using a === comparison, as in:

    assert(a === b, "extra info reported if assertion fails")
    

    For more information on how this mechanism works, see the documentation for Equalizer.

    o

    the Option[String] to assert

    clue

    An objects whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

    definition classes: Assertions
  24. def assert ( condition : Boolean , clue : Any ) : Unit

    Assert that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true.

    Assert that a boolean condition, described in String message, is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException with the String obtained by invoking toString on the specified message as the exception's detail message.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assert

    clue

    An objects whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

    definition classes: Assertions
  25. def assert ( condition : Boolean ) : Unit

    Assert that a boolean condition is true.

    Assert that a boolean condition is true. If the condition is true, this method returns normally. Else, it throws TestFailedException.

    condition

    the boolean condition to assert

    definition classes: Assertions
  26. val be : BeWord

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    obj should (be theSameInstanceAs (string) and be theSameInstanceAs (string))
                ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  27. def clone () : AnyRef

    This method creates and returns a copy of the receiver object.

    This method creates and returns a copy of the receiver object.

    The default implementation of the clone method is platform dependent.

    returns

    a copy of the receiver object.

    attributes: protected[lang]
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  28. val contain : ContainWord

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    list should (contain ('a') and have length (7))
                 ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  29. implicit def convertByteToPlusOrMinusWrapper ( right : Byte ) : BytePlusOrMinusWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type Byte to a BytePlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type Byte to a BytePlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  30. implicit def convertDoubleToPlusOrMinusWrapper ( right : Double ) : DoublePlusOrMinusWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type Double to a DoublePlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type Double to a DoublePlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  31. implicit def convertFloatToPlusOrMinusWrapper ( right : Float ) : FloatPlusOrMinusWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type Float to a FloatPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type Float to a FloatPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  32. implicit def convertGetLengthFieldToIntLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  33. implicit def convertGetLengthFieldToLongLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  34. implicit def convertGetLengthMethodToIntLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  35. implicit def convertGetLengthMethodToLongLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getLength method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  36. implicit def convertGetSizeFieldToIntSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  37. implicit def convertGetSizeFieldToLongSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  38. implicit def convertGetSizeMethodToIntSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  39. implicit def convertGetSizeMethodToLongSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a getSize method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  40. implicit def convertHasIntGetLengthFieldToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  41. implicit def convertHasIntGetLengthMethodToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  42. implicit def convertHasIntGetSizeFieldToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  43. implicit def convertHasIntGetSizeMethodToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  44. implicit def convertHasIntLengthFieldToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  45. implicit def convertHasIntLengthMethodToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  46. implicit def convertHasIntSizeFieldToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size val of type Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  47. implicit def convertHasIntSizeMethodToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size method that results in Int to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  48. implicit def convertHasLongGetLengthFieldToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength val of type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength val of type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  49. implicit def convertHasLongGetLengthMethodToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getLength method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  50. implicit def convertHasLongGetSizeFieldToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize val of type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize val of type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  51. implicit def convertHasLongGetSizeMethodToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a getSize method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  52. implicit def convertHasLongLengthFieldToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length val of type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length val of type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  53. implicit def convertHasLongLengthMethodToLengthShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : LengthShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a length method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  54. implicit def convertHasLongSizeFieldToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size val type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size val type Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  55. implicit def convertHasLongSizeMethodToSizeShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef {...}] ( o : T ) : SizeShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an AnyRef of type T whose structure includes a size method that results in Long to a SizeShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  56. implicit def convertIntToPlusOrMinusWrapper ( right : Int ) : IntPlusOrMinusWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type Int to a IntPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type Int to a IntPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  57. implicit def convertLengthFieldToIntLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  58. implicit def convertLengthFieldToLongLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  59. implicit def convertLengthMethodToIntLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  60. implicit def convertLengthMethodToLongLengthWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : LengthWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a length method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have length (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  61. implicit def convertLongToPlusOrMinusWrapper ( right : Long ) : LongPlusOrMinusWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type Long to a LongPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type Long to a LongPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  62. implicit def convertMapMatcherToJavaMapMatcher [K, V] ( mapMatcher : Matcher[Map[K, V]] ) : Matcher[Map[K, V]]

    This implicit conversion method enables the following syntax (javaMap is a java.util.Map):

    This implicit conversion method enables the following syntax (javaMap is a java.util.Map):

    javaMap should (contain key ("two"))
    

    The (contain key ("two")) expression will result in a Matcher[scala.collection.Map[String, Any]]. This implicit conversion method will convert that matcher to a Matcher[java.util.Map[String, Any]].

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  63. implicit def convertShortToPlusOrMinusWrapper ( right : Short ) : ShortPlusOrMinusWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type Short to a ShortPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type Short to a ShortPlusOrMinusWrapper, to enable a plusOrMinus method to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  64. implicit def convertSizeFieldToIntSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size field of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  65. implicit def convertSizeFieldToLongSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size field of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  66. implicit def convertSizeMethodToIntSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size method of type Int to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  67. implicit def convertSizeMethodToLongSizeWrapper ( o : AnyRef {...} ) : SizeWrapper

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts an object with a size method of type Long to a LengthWrapper, to enable that object to be used with the have size (7) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  68. implicit def convertSymbolToHavePropertyMatcherGenerator ( symbol : Symbol ) : HavePropertyMatcherGenerator

    This implicit conversion method converts a Symbol to a HavePropertyMatcherGenerator, to enable the symbol to be used with the have ('author ("Dickens")) syntax.

    This implicit conversion method converts a Symbol to a HavePropertyMatcherGenerator, to enable the symbol to be used with the have ('author ("Dickens")) syntax.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  69. implicit def convertToAnyRefShouldWrapper [T <: AnyRef] ( o : T ) : AnyRefShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts a scala.AnyRef of type T to an AnyRefShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts a scala.AnyRef of type T to an AnyRefShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  70. implicit def convertToAnyShouldWrapper [T] ( o : T ) : AnyShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an object of type T to a AnyShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type T to a AnyShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  71. implicit def convertToArrayShouldWrapper [T] ( o : Array[T] ) : ArrayShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Array[T] to a ArrayShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Array[T] to a ArrayShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  72. implicit def convertToByteShouldWrapper ( o : Byte ) : ByteShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Byte to a ByteShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Byte to a ByteShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  73. implicit def convertToDoubleShouldWrapper ( o : Double ) : DoubleShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Double to a DoubleShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Double to a DoubleShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  74. implicit def convertToEqualizer ( left : Any ) : Equalizer

    Implicit conversion from Any to Equalizer, used to enable assertions with === comparisons.

    Implicit conversion from Any to Equalizer, used to enable assertions with === comparisons.

    For more information on this mechanism, see the documentation for </code>Equalizer</code>.

    Because trait Suite mixes in Assertions, this implicit conversion will always be available by default in ScalaTest Suites. This is the only implicit conversion that is in scope by default in every ScalaTest Suite. Other implicit conversions offered by ScalaTest, such as those that support the matchers DSL or invokePrivate, must be explicitly invited into your test code, either by mixing in a trait or importing the members of its companion object. The reason ScalaTest requires you to invite in implicit conversions (with the exception of the implicit conversion for === operator) is because if one of ScalaTest's implicit conversions clashes with an implicit conversion used in the code you are trying to test, your program won't compile. Thus there is a chance that if you are ever trying to use a library or test some code that also offers an implicit conversion involving a === operator, you could run into the problem of a compiler error due to an ambiguous implicit conversion. If that happens, you can turn off the implicit conversion offered by this convertToEqualizer method simply by overriding the method in your Suite subclass, but not marking it as implicit:

    // In your Suite subclass
    override def convertToEqualizer(left: Any) = new Equalizer(left)
    

    left

    the object whose type to convert to Equalizer.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Assertions
  75. implicit def convertToEvaluatingApplicationShouldWrapper ( o : ResultOfEvaluatingApplication ) : EvaluatingApplicationShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type T to a EvaluatingApplicationShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type T to a EvaluatingApplicationShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  76. implicit def convertToFloatShouldWrapper ( o : Float ) : FloatShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Float to a FloatShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Float to a FloatShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  77. implicit def convertToIntShouldWrapper ( o : Int ) : IntShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Int to a IntShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Int to a IntShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  78. implicit def convertToJavaCollectionShouldWrapper [T] ( o : Collection[T] ) : JavaCollectionShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.util.Collection[T] to a JavaCollectionShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.util.Collection[T] to a JavaCollectionShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  79. implicit def convertToJavaListShouldWrapper [T] ( o : List[T] ) : JavaListShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.util.List[T] to a JavaListShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.util.List[T] to a JavaListShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object. This conversion is necessary to enable length to be used on Java Lists.

    attributes: implicit
  80. implicit def convertToJavaMapShouldWrapper [K, V] ( o : Map[K, V] ) : JavaMapShouldWrapper[K, V]

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.util.Map[K, V] to a JavaMapShouldWrapper[K, V], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.util.Map[K, V] to a JavaMapShouldWrapper[K, V], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  81. implicit def convertToListShouldWrapper [T] ( o : List[T] ) : ListShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.List[T] to a ListShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.List[T] to a ListShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  82. implicit def convertToLongShouldWrapper ( o : Long ) : LongShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Long to a LongShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Long to a LongShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  83. implicit def convertToMapShouldWrapper [K, V] ( o : Map[K, V] ) : MapShouldWrapper[K, V]

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.collection.Map[K, V] to a MapShouldWrapper[K, V], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.collection.Map[K, V] to a MapShouldWrapper[K, V], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  84. implicit def convertToMatcherWrapper [T] ( leftMatcher : Matcher[T] ) : MatcherWrapper[T]

    This implicit conversion method enables ScalaTest matchers expressions that involve and and or.

    This implicit conversion method enables ScalaTest matchers expressions that involve and and or.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  85. implicit def convertToSeqShouldWrapper [T] ( o : Seq[T] ) : SeqShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Seq[T] to a SeqShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Seq[T] to a SeqShouldWrapper[T], to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  86. implicit def convertToShortShouldWrapper ( o : Short ) : ShortShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Short to a ShortShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Short to a ShortShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  87. implicit def convertToStringShouldWrapper ( o : String ) : StringShouldWrapper

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.lang.String to a StringShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type java.lang.String to a StringShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: ShouldMatchersShouldVerb
  88. implicit def convertToTraversableShouldWrapper [T] ( o : Traversable[T] ) : TraversableShouldWrapper[T]

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Collection[T] to a CollectionShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    Implicitly converts an object of type scala.Collection[T] to a CollectionShouldWrapper, to enable should methods to be invokable on that object.

    attributes: implicit
  89. implicit def convertTraversableMatcherToArrayMatcher [T] ( traversableMatcher : Matcher[Traversable[T]] ) : Matcher[Array[T]]

    This implicit conversion method enables the following syntax:

    This implicit conversion method enables the following syntax:

    Array(1, 2) should (not contain (3) and not contain (2))
    

    The (not contain ("two")) expression will result in a Matcher[Traversable[String]]. This implicit conversion method will convert that matcher to a Matcher[Array[String]].

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  90. implicit def convertTraversableMatcherToJavaCollectionMatcher [T] ( traversableMatcher : Matcher[Traversable[T]] ) : Matcher[Collection[T]]

    This implicit conversion method enables the following syntax (javaColl is a java.util.Collection):

    This implicit conversion method enables the following syntax (javaColl is a java.util.Collection):

    javaColl should contain ("two")
    

    The (contain ("two")) expression will result in a Matcher[Traversable[String]]. This implicit conversion method will convert that matcher to a Matcher[java.util.Collection[String]].

    attributes: implicit
    definition classes: Matchers
  91. val endWith : EndWithWord

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    string should (endWith ("ago") and include ("score"))
                   ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  92. def eq ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    This method is used to test whether the argument (arg0) is a reference to the receiver object (this).

    This method is used to test whether the argument (arg0) is a reference to the receiver object (this).

    The eq method implements an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_relation equivalence relation] on non-null instances of AnyRef: * It is reflexive: for any non-null instance x of type AnyRef, x.eq(x) returns true. * It is symmetric: for any non-null instances x and y of type AnyRef, x.eq(y) returns true if and only if y.eq(x) returns true. * It is transitive: for any non-null instances x, y, and z of type AnyRef if x.eq(y) returns true and y.eq(z) returns true, then x.eq(z) returns true.

    Additionally, the eq method has three other properties. * It is consistent: for any non-null instances x and y of type AnyRef, multiple invocations of x.eq(y) consistently returns true or consistently returns false. * For any non-null instance x of type AnyRef, x.eq(null) and null.eq(x) returns false. * null.eq(null) returns true.

    When overriding the equals or hashCode methods, it is important to ensure that their behavior is consistent with reference equality. Therefore, if two objects are references to each other (o1 eq o2), they should be equal to each other (o1 == o2) and they should hash to the same value (o1.hashCode == o2.hashCode).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for reference equality.

    returns

    true if the argument is a reference to the receiver object; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  93. def equal ( right : Any ) : Matcher[Any]

    This method enables the following syntax:

    This method enables the following syntax:

    result should equal (7)
                  ^
    

    The left should equal (right) syntax works by calling == on the left value, passing in the right value, on every type except arrays. If both left and right are arrays, deep will be invoked on both left and right before comparing them with ==. Thus, even though this expression will yield false, because Array's equals method compares object identity:

    Array(1, 2) == Array(1, 2) // yields false
    

    The following expression will not result in a TestFailedException, because ScalaTest will compare the two arrays structurally, taking into consideration the equality of the array's contents:

    Array(1, 2) should equal (Array(1, 2)) // succeeds (i.e., does not throw TestFailedException)
    

    If you ever do want to verify that two arrays are actually the same object (have the same identity), you can use the be theSameInstanceAs syntax.

    definition classes: Matchers
  94. def equals ( arg0 : Any ) : Boolean

    This method is used to compare the receiver object (this) with the argument object (arg0) for equivalence.

    This method is used to compare the receiver object (this) with the argument object (arg0) for equivalence.

    The default implementations of this method is an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_relation equivalence relation]: * It is reflexive: for any instance x of type Any, x.equals(x) should return true. * It is symmetric: for any instances x and y of type Any, x.equals(y) should return true if and only if y.equals(x) returns true. * It is transitive: for any instances x, y, and z of type AnyRef if x.equals(y) returns true and y.equals(z) returns true, then x.equals(z) should return true.

    If you override this method, you should verify that your implementation remains an equivalence relation. Additionally, when overriding this method it is often necessary to override hashCode to ensure that objects that are "equal" (o1.equals(o2) returns true) hash to the same scala.Int (o1.hashCode.equals(o2.hashCode)).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for equality.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false otherwise.

    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  95. def evaluating ( fun : ⇒ Any ) : ResultOfEvaluatingApplication

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    evaluating { "hi".charAt(-1) } should produce [StringIndexOutOfBoundsException]
    ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  96. def expect ( expected : Any )( actual : Any ) : Unit

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual.

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual. If the actual value equals the expected value (as determined by ==), expect returns normally. Else, expect throws an TestFailedException whose detail message includes the expected and actual values.

    expected

    the expected value

    actual

    the actual value, which should equal the passed expected value

    definition classes: Assertions
  97. def expect ( expected : Any , clue : Any )( actual : Any ) : Unit

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual.

    Expect that the value passed as expected equals the value passed as actual. If the actual equals the expected (as determined by ==), expect returns normally. Else, if actual is not equal to expected, expect throws an TestFailedException whose detail message includes the expected and actual values, as well as the String obtained by invoking toString on the passed message.

    expected

    the expected value

    clue

    An object whose toString method returns a message to include in a failure report.

    actual

    the actual value, which should equal the passed expected value

    definition classes: Assertions
  98. def fail ( cause : Throwable ) : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed. The getMessage method of the thrown TestFailedException will return cause.toString().

    cause

    a Throwable that indicates the cause of the failure.

    definition classes: Assertions
  99. def fail ( message : String , cause : Throwable ) : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message and Throwable cause, to indicate a test failed.

    message

    A message describing the failure.

    cause

    A Throwable that indicates the cause of the failure.

    definition classes: Assertions
  100. def fail ( message : String ) : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException, with the passed String message as the exception's detail message, to indicate a test failed.

    message

    A message describing the failure.

    definition classes: Assertions
  101. def fail () : Nothing

    Throws TestFailedException to indicate a test failed.

    Throws TestFailedException to indicate a test failed.

    definition classes: Assertions
  102. def finalize () : Unit

    This method is called by the garbage collector on the receiver object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object.

    This method is called by the garbage collector on the receiver object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object.

    The details of when and if the finalize method are invoked, as well as the interaction between finalize and non-local returns and exceptions, are all platform dependent.

    attributes: protected[lang]
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  103. val fullyMatch : FullyMatchWord

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    string should (fullyMatch regex ("Hel*o, wor.d") and not have length (99))
                   ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  104. def getClass () : java.lang.Class[_]

    Returns a representation that corresponds to the dynamic class of the receiver object.

    Returns a representation that corresponds to the dynamic class of the receiver object.

    The nature of the representation is platform dependent.

    returns

    a representation that corresponds to the dynamic class of the receiver object.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  105. def hashCode () : Int

    Returns a hash code value for the object.

    Returns a hash code value for the object.

    The default hashing algorithm is platform dependent.

    Note that it is allowed for two objects to have identical hash codes (o1.hashCode.equals(o2.hashCode)) yet not be equal (o1.equals(o2) returns false). A degenerate implementation could always return 0. However, it is required that if two objects are equal (o1.equals(o2) returns true) that they have identical hash codes (o1.hashCode.equals(o2.hashCode)). Therefore, when overriding this method, be sure to verify that the behavior is consistent with the equals method.

    returns

    the hash code value for the object.

    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  106. val have : HaveWord

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    list should (have length (3) and not contain ('a'))
                 ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  107. val include : IncludeWord

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    string should (include ("hope") and not startWith ("no"))
                   ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  108. def intercept [T <: AnyRef] ( f : ⇒ Any )(implicit manifest : Manifest[T] ) : T

    Intercept and return an exception that's expected to be thrown by the passed function value.

    Intercept and return an exception that's expected to be thrown by the passed function value. The thrown exception must be an instance of the type specified by the type parameter of this method. This method invokes the passed function. If the function throws an exception that's an instance of the specified type, this method returns that exception. Else, whether the passed function returns normally or completes abruptly with a different exception, this method throws TestFailedException.

    Note that the type specified as this method's type parameter may represent any subtype of AnyRef, not just Throwable or one of its subclasses. In Scala, exceptions can be caught based on traits they implement, so it may at times make sense to specify a trait that the intercepted exception's class must mix in. If a class instance is passed for a type that could not possibly be used to catch an exception (such as String, for example), this method will complete abruptly with a TestFailedException.

    f

    the function value that should throw the expected exception

    manifest

    an implicit Manifest representing the type of the specified type parameter.

    returns

    the intercepted exception, if it is of the expected type

    definition classes: Assertions
  109. def isInstanceOf [T0] : Boolean

    This method is used to test whether the dynamic type of the receiver object is T0.

    This method is used to test whether the dynamic type of the receiver object is T0.

    Note that the test result of the test is modulo Scala's erasure semantics. Therefore the expression 1.isInstanceOf[String] will return false, while the expression List(1).isInstanceOf[List[String]] will return true. In the latter example, because the type argument is erased as part of compilation it is not possible to check whether the contents of the list are of the requested typed.

    returns

    true if the receiver object is an instance of erasure of type T0; false otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: Any
  110. val key : KeyWord

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    map should not contain key (10)
                           ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  111. val length : LengthWord

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    "hi" should not have length (3)
                         ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  112. def ne ( arg0 : AnyRef ) : Boolean

    o.ne(arg0) is the same as !(o.eq(arg0)).

    o.ne(arg0) is the same as !(o.eq(arg0)).

    arg0

    the object to compare against this object for reference dis-equality.

    returns

    false if the argument is not a reference to the receiver object; true otherwise.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  113. val not : NotWord

    This field enables syntax like the following:

    This field enables syntax like the following:

    myFile should (not be an (directory) and not have ('name ("foo.bar")))
                   ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  114. def notify () : Unit

    Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  115. def notifyAll () : Unit

    Wakes up all threads that are waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    Wakes up all threads that are waiting on the receiver object's monitor.

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  116. def produce [T] (implicit manifest : Manifest[T] ) : ResultOfProduceInvocation[T]

    This method enables the following syntax:

    This method enables the following syntax:

    evaluating { "hi".charAt(-1) } should produce [StringIndexOutOfBoundsException]
    ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  117. val regex : RegexWord

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    "eight" should not fullyMatch regex ("""(-)?(\d+)(\.\d*)?""".r)
                                  ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  118. val size : SizeWord

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    set should not have size (3)
                        ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  119. val startWith : StartWithWord

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    This method enables syntax such as the following:

    string should (startWith ("Four") and include ("year"))
                   ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  120. def synchronized [T0] ( arg0 : ⇒ T0 ) : T0

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
  121. val theSameInstanceAs : TheSameInstanceAsPhrase

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    oneString should not be theSameInstanceAs (anotherString)
                            ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  122. def toString () : String

    Returns a string representation of the object.

    Returns a string representation of the object.

    The default representation is platform dependent.

    returns

    a string representation of the object.

    definition classes: AnyRef → Any
  123. val value : ValueWord

    This field enables the following syntax:

    This field enables the following syntax:

    map should not contain value (10)
                           ^
    

    definition classes: Matchers
  124. def wait () : Unit

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  125. def wait ( arg0 : Long , arg1 : Int ) : Unit

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  126. def wait ( arg0 : Long ) : Unit

    attributes: final
    definition classes: AnyRef
    annotations: @throws()
  127. def withClue ( clue : Any )( fun : ⇒ Unit ) : Unit

    Executes the block of code passed as the second parameter, and, if it completes abruptly with a ModifiableMessage exception, prepends the "clue" string passed as the first parameter to the beginning of the detail message of that thrown exception, then rethrows it.

    Executes the block of code passed as the second parameter, and, if it completes abruptly with a ModifiableMessage exception, prepends the "clue" string passed as the first parameter to the beginning of the detail message of that thrown exception, then rethrows it. If clue does not end in a white space character, one space will be added between it and the existing detail message (unless the detail message is not defined).

    This method allows you to add more information about what went wrong that will be reported when a test fails. Here's an example:

    withClue("(Employee's name was: " + employee.name + ")") {
      intercept[IllegalArgumentException] {
        employee.getTask(-1)
      }
    }
    

    If an invocation of intercept completed abruptly with an exception, the resulting message would be something like:

    (Employee's name was Bob Jones) Expected IllegalArgumentException to be thrown, but no exception was thrown
    

    definition classes: Assertions

Inherited from ShouldVerb

Inherited from Matchers

Inherited from Assertions

Inherited from AnyRef

Inherited from Any