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Flexibility and Complexity
A Conversation with Martin Fowler, Part IV
by Bill Venners
November 25, 2002

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Summary
Martin Fowler, chief scientist at Thoughtworks, Inc. and author of numerous books on software design and process, talks with Bill Venners about how to combat design decay, the cost of flexibility and reusability, four criteria for a simple system, and test-first design of interfaces.

Over the last decade, Martin Fowler pioneered many software development techniques in the development of business information systems. He's well known for his work on object-oriented analysis and design, software patterns, Unified Modeling Language, agile software processes (particularly extreme programming), and refactoring. He is the author of Analysis Patterns (Oct. 1996), Refactoring (June 1999; coauthored with Kent Beck, et al.), UML Distilled (Aug. 1999; with Kendall Scott), Planning Extreme Programming (Oct. 2000; with Kent Beck), and the soon to be released Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture (Nov. 2002), all published by Addison Wesley.

In this six-part interview, which is being published in weekly installments, Fowler gives his views on many topics, including refactoring, design, testing, and extreme programming. In Part I, Fowler makes the business case for refactoring and testing, and describes the interplay between refactoring, design, and reliability. In Part II, Fowler discusses design principles of avoiding duplication, separating presentation and domain logic, being explicit, and describes how refactoring depends on code ownership. In Part III, Fowler differentiates between planned and evolutionary design, suggests that focusing on superficial problems can lead to the discovery of substantial problems, and claims that doing a good job won't slow you down. In this fourth installment, Fowler discusses design decay, flexibility and reusability versus complexity, four criteria for a simple system, and interface design.

Design Decay and Refactoring

Bill Venners: Why do designs decay over time?

Martin Fowler: If you have a notion of planned design, that the design is something that's right at the beginning, then it's kind of inevitable that the design will decay. So many things in life do decay. The point is that you need to know how to keep a design from decaying. That's what refactoring is about, techniques to reverse the decaying process. Refactoring is relatively new technique. We're still not used to what it gives us. But one thing it gives us is you can use refactoring to stop the decaying of designs. In fact, you can reverse the process and actually make designs improve over time.

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