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Method Invocation and Return
Java's Bytecodes for Invoking and Returning from Methods
by Bill Venners
First Published in JavaWorld, June 1997

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Other forms of method invocation
Although instance methods normally are invoked with invokevirtual, two other opcodes are used to invoke this kind of method in certain situations: invokespecial and invokeinterface.

Invokespecial is used in three situations in which an instance method must be invoked based on the type of the reference, not on the class of the object. The three situations are:

  1. invocation of instance initialization (<init>) methods
  2. invocation of private methods
  3. invocation of methods using the super keyword

Invokeinterface is used to invoke an instance method given a reference to an interface.

Method invocation of invokespecial and invokeinterface
Opcode Operand(s) Description
indexbyte1, indexbyte2
pop objectref and args, invoke method at constant pool index
indexbyte1, indexbyte2
pop objectref and args, invoke method at constant pool index

The invokespecial instruction
Invokespecial differs from invokevirtual primarily in that invokespecial selects a method based on the type of the reference rather than the class of the object. In other words, it does static binding instead of dynamic binding. In each of the three situations where invokespecial is used, dynamic binding wouldn't yield the desired result.

invokespecial and <init>
The compiler places code for constructors and instance variable initializers into <init> methods, or instance initialization methods. A class gets one <init> method in the class file for each constructor in the source. If you don't explicitly declare a constructor in the source, the compiler will generate a default no-arg constructor for you. This default constructor also ends up as an <init> method in the class file. So just as every class will have at least one constructor, every class also will have at least one <init> method.

The <init> methods are called only when a new instance is created. At least one <init> method will be invoked for each class along the inheritance path of the newly created object, and multiple <init> methods could be invoked for any one class along that path.

Why is invokespecial used to invoke <init> methods? Because subclass <init> methods need to be able to invoke superclass <init> methods. This is how multiple <init> methods get invoked when an object is instantiated. The virtual machine invokes an <init> method declared in the object's class. That <init> method first invokes either another <init> method in the same class, or an <init> method in its superclass. This process continues all the way up to Object.

For example, consider this code:

class Dog {

class CockerSpaniel extends Dog {

    public static void main(String args[]) {
        CockerSpaniel bootsie = new CockerSpaniel();

When you invoke main(), the virtual machine will allocate space for a new CockerSpaniel object, then invoke CockerSpaniel's default no-arg <init> method to initialize that space. That method will invoke Dog's <init> method, which will invoke Object's <init> method.

Because every class has at least one <init> method, it is common for classes to have <init> methods with identical signatures. (A method's signature is its name and the number and types of its arguments.) For example, the <init> methods for all three classes in the inheritance path for CockerSpaniel have the same signature. CockerSpaniel, Dog, and Object all contain a method named <init> that takes no arguments.

It would be impossible to invoke a Dog's <init> method from CockerSpaniel's <init> method using invokevirtual, because invokevirtual would perform dynamic binding and invoke CockerSpaniel's <init> method. With invokespecial, however, Dog's <init> method can be invoked from CockerSpaniel's <init> method, because the type of the reference placed in the class file is Dog.

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